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ICRSE condemns FEMM, the European Parliament Women's Rights and Gender Equality Committee on their decision to support the criminalisation of clients.
Section 1-3 Tool Kit "Hands off our clients!"
February 18th, 2014
To: Members of European Parliament
Regarding: the vote on 27th of February 2014 on Ms Honeyball’s report on sexual exploitation and prostitution
Dear Members of European Parliament,
The International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe (ICRSE) and the 560 NGOs and Civil Society Organisations listed below (472 in Europe, 560 internationally) urge you to reject Ms Honeyball’s report on sexual exploitation and prostitution.
The Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, FEMM has voted to support the criminalisation of clients of sex workers, a policy that, under the guise of protecting women, will only increase their vulnerability. This policy goes against the recommendations of all sex workers groups as well as hundreds of health organisations, women’s and LGBT rights organisations.
The reality is that the criminalisation of clients has not only been ineffective in reducing prostitution and trafficking, but also been evidenced as increasing the vulnerabilities of sex workers. And contrary to the claims of Ms Honeyball, it has also led to the criminalisation of sex workers.
Amongst other evidence, a recent Police report from Sweden mentions that: “In 2009, the National Bureau of Investigation estimated that there were about 90 Thai massage parlours in Stockholm and vicinity, most of which were judged to be offering sexual services for sale. At the turn of 2011/2012, the number of Thai massage parlours in the Stockholm area was estimated to be about 250 and throughout the country about 450.” Such numbers are a clear indicator that the Swedish model has been ineffective in its main mission.
In Norway, where the purchase of sexual services has been criminalised in 2009, Pro-Sentret, Oslo’s official help centre for sex workers, published a report based on a survey of 123 active sex workers that clearly demonstrate that sex workers are now less likely to demand protection from the police because of the increased stigma and the understanding that they themselves are seen as criminals.
Many organisations working with victims of trafficking and migrant sex workers are also denouncing Ms Honeyball report and the conflation of sex work and trafficking. La Strada International and a network of 12 anti-trafficking NGOs have published a statement asking MEPs to vote against the Honeyball’s report. They wrote: “Criminalisation stigmatises and marginalises both domestic and migrant sex workers and it deprives them of the tools to protect themselves from violence and seek redress. It drives the sex industry even more underground, which results in less access to health, social and legal assistance for sex workers, and significantly lower chances to identify individuals who have been trafficked.”
We also remind MEPs that there is no evidence that legalised prostitution increase trafficking: Regarding the relation between legalised prostitution and human trafficking, The Dutch National Rapporteur on Human Trafficking in Human Beings concluded “that it is not (yet) possible to give an answer to the question of the extent to which legalisation of prostitution leads to more human trafficking.” (November 2013)
A large number of HIV and health organisations have warned policy makers of the dangers of criminalising either sex workers or their clients. Worryingly, the question of public health is largely ignored in this report. We quote UNAIDS Advisory Group on HIV and Sex Work in their 2011 report to accompany the UNAIDS Guidance Note on HIV and Sex Work (2009):
“States should move away from criminalising sex work or activities associated with it. Decriminalisation of sex work should include removing criminal penalties for purchase and sale of sex, management of sex workers and brothels, and other activities related to sex work.”
Finally, we denounce the ideological bias and lack of evidence of the report. A letter and counter-report signed by more than 94 academics and researchers and published on ICRSE’s website clearly demonstrates that this report is not based on data and evidence and should not be accepted by the European Parliament.
The position of the European Parliament's Women's Rights and Gender Equality Committee and the criminalisation of clients are based on ideology and denounced by all sex workers organisations in Europe as well as many health organisations, LGBT and women’s rights organisations (including Transgender Europe, the German Women’s Council and International Planned Parenthood Federation – European Network,). Anti-trafficking NGOs have also issued a statement against the Honeyball's report.
For our safety, health, respect and human rights, we say NO to the Swedish Model of criminalisation of clients and we ask you to:
· Vote against Ms Honeyball’s report on sexual exploitation and prostitution.
The International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe – network of 59 organisations in 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia.
Contact: info [at] sexworkeurope [dot] org
Organisations endorsing this letter:
Regional and international networks: NSWP, Global Network of Sex work Projects (represents 128 organisations in 28 countries); APNSW, Asia Pacific Network of Sex Work projects (represent 58 member organisations in 25 countries) ; SWAN, Sex Workers’ Rights Advocacy Network in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (represents 23 organisations in 21 countries); TAMPEP International Foundation, European Network for HIV/STI Prevention and Health Promotion among Migrant Sex Workers; AIDS Action Europe, CORRELATION network, European Network Social Inclusion & Health; EATG, European Aids Treatment group; INPUD, International Network of People who Use Drugs; International Planned Parenthood Federation –IPPF European Network (includes 40 members organisations in 40 countries); Transgender Europe (represents 79 organisations in 31 countries); ICW, International Community of Women living with HIV/Aids; La Strada International, European NGO network against Trafficking in Human Beings
National organisations in Europe:
Albania: Stop AIDS-Action Plus, Humanitarian organization
Austria: maiz, autonomous centre for and by migrant women in Linz; LEFÖ/TAMPEP, Support and European Network for Migrant Sex Workers, Sexworker Forum Verein sexworker.at, sexworker forum association sexworker.at, Vienna; Aids Hilfe Wien, AIDS/HIV Service Organisation
Belgium: vzw Pasop, service provision for sex workers in Ghent; Espace P, sex workers’ service providers, Bruxelles; Ghapro, health care and assistance for male and female prostitutes, Antwerpen
Bosnia and Herzegovina: PROI
Croatia: NGO Flight
Denmark: Sexarbejdernes Interesse Organisation
Estonia: AIDS Tugikeskus, Aids information and support center
Finland: Pro-tukipiste; Feminist Initiative -network
France: ARAP-Rubis Nîmes, Action communautaire avec les personnes prostituées, service provider for sex workers, Association Griselidis, community-based health organisation, Toulouse; ACCEPTESS-T transgender rights organisation; STRASS, French union of sex workers; PASTT; Autres Regards, sex workers service provider, Marseille; Collectif Droits et Prostitution, collective of 9 organisations for the rights of sex workers; Support Transgenre Strasbourg
Germany: BesD - Trade Association Erotic and Sexual Services; Hydra e.V., Meeting and counselling centre for prostitutes, Berlin; Deutscher Frauenrat – Lobby der Frauen, National Council of German Women’s Organisations (umbrella organisation of more than 50 nation-wide women's associations and organisations); Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe e.V. (DAH) is the umbrella association of 130 organisations in Germany, including ASOs, prevention projects, drug help centres, residential and health-care projects, and self-help networks; move e. V., association for education and communication between sexwork; Online-Magazin “menschenhandel heute” Online magazine for a critical and human rights based approach to human trafficking and related topics, like sex work and migration; Projekt „Nachtfalke“, Support for Male Sexworkers in Essen; Niedersächsische AIDS-Hilfe Landesverband e.V. (NAH) (AIDS Service Organization in Lower Saxony;Nitribit, Meeting and counselling centre for prostitutes, Bremen; Madonna e.V., Meeting and Counselling Centre for Sexworker, Bochum; BSD, German association of sexual services; Münchner AIDS-Hilfe e.V., AIDS Service Organization in Munich; Phönix, counselling centre for prostitutes, Hannover; Theodora, (Consulting for prostitutes ad job changing for women an girls, Herford; AIDS-Hilfe Aachen e.V.‘ AIDS Service Organization in Aachen; Ban Ying e.V.,Koordinations- und Beratungsstelle gegen Menschenhandel, Coordination- and consultation office against trafficking, Berlin; Regenschirm e.V., Self-help organisation for people, who work in the field of prostitution; Ban Ying Zufluchtswohnung e.V- Zufluchtswohnung für Migrant_innen, shelter for Migrant Women; Ratschlag Prostitution Hamburg, Advice Group on Prostitution, Hamburg; TAMPEP-Germany, European Network for HIV/STI Prevention and Health Promotion among Migrant Sex Workers; BASIS-Projekt - Health Care Prevention for Male Sex Workers and their Customers, Hamburg; ragazza e.V. Support for drug using female prostitutes, Hamburg; Ver.di Fachbereich 13 Hamburg- trade union verdi, area 13 for special services; OPERA BildungsRaum, basic vocational courses, job-related qualification, support, counselling and information for sexworker, Nuremberg; Kassandra e.V. counselling, information, professionalization and support for sexworker, Nuernberg; bufas e.V, Union of conselling organisations for prostitutes; HAW, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences,department social work; DSTIG, GSSG – Charitable Foundation Sexuality and Health, as legal body of the project sexsicher.de, Foundation for Sexuality and Health
Greece: Positive Voice
Hungary: SZEXE, sex workers advocacy association
Ireland: UglyMugs.ie, Working together for sex workers' safety in Ireland
Irish Sex Workers Alliance, alliance of individuals (sex workers, ex-sex workers and others) and organisations involved in health and social support services
Italy: Associazione radicale Certi Diritti; Rete Italiana della Riduzione del Danno, Italian network of harm reduction; LILA Onlus, Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro l'Aids -Italian League for Fighting Aids. Centro Antiviolenza Antistalking La Nereide Onlus, Siracusa; MIT-Movimento Identità Transessuale, Bologna; ARCI GAY nazionale, Associazione XXD, association publishing monthly feminist e-magazine; Progetto Stella Polare, project North Star, Paths of Social Protection to facilitate processes of self-determination and to support those who are asking to get out of situations of serious sexual and labor exploitation; Le Graziose - CDCP Genova; Comitato Diritti Civili delle Prostitute Onlus, Committee for the Civil Rights of Prostitutes; PIAM Onlus, project migrant integration, Asti; Associazione culturale Etnoblog- Trieste; Equality Italy
Lithuania: Demetra, Association of HIV affected women and their families;
Macedonia: STAR-STAR, sex workers' rights organisation; Healthy Options Project Skopje; Coalition Sexual and Health Rights of marginalized communities; ESE, Association for Emancipation, Solidarity and Equality of Women in the Republic of Macedonia; Opcija – Ohrid; Open Gate – La Strada; Reactor - Research in Action; NGO HELP Gostivar, work with sex workers and needle exchange
Netherlands: The Dutch Platform on Sex Work; Rights4Change, making human rights work; Buro Brycx, advice on prostitution; Sex Work Projects STI Aids Netherlands-http://www.prostitutie.nl;Tampep International Foundation
Norway: PION, association for the interests of prostitutes
Poland: Sex Work Polska, Coalition for sex workers’ rights; Social AIDS Committee; Stowarzyszenie Program STACJA, 'Program STACJA' Association; La Strada Poland
Portugal: APDES; RTS, Portuguese sex worker network; Associação Acompanha; Associação Existências; Associação Novo Olhar; Associação Positivo; GAT, HIV/AIDs organisation; Liga Portuguesa Contra a Sida; Obra Social das Irmãs Oblatas do Santíssimo Redentor; Médicos do Mundo; Panteras Rosa; SOS Racismo; UMAR
Romania: Carusel Association, Romanian human rights and harm reduction NGO; ACCEPT Association, the first LGBT rights NGO in Romania;Romanian Harm Reduction Network, Romanian network formed by 11 harm reduction NGOs; ARAS – Against-AIDS Romanian Association, HIV/AIDS service NGO in Romania; Spiritual Police, Human Rights NGO aiming to raise awarness on active civic consciousness and solidarity; Feminist Centre SofiaNadejde, antisexist, antiracist, antitransfob, antihomofob, anti-ablist and anticapitalist group, Bucharest; H.arta group, knowledge production and (re)writing histories to gender issues in global capitalist times, Timisoara, Romania; Euroregional Center for Public Initiatives, supports public initiatives in promoting human rights and non-discrimination; Society of Contraceptive and Sexual Education (SECS), sexual education, HIV/AIDS prevention, family planning and maternity services, Romania; Solidarity for Freedom of Conscience Association, fights discrimination based on faith and religion in Foundation Center for Critical Consciousness, official branch of Center for Inquiry, Transnational in Romania; CeRe Resource Center for Public Participation, fighting for a political environment where citizens actively participate in the decision making process, Bucharest; Foundation Family and Child Protection, protection to children in need of assistance, Bucharest; Center for Action and Responsibility in Education CARE, community development and provider of opportunities for students, teachers and parents, Bucharest; Alliance to Fight Alcoholism and Drug Addictions ALIAT, prevention, care and treatment services in addictions, Bucharest; Parada Romania Foundation, services for homeless children, young people and families
Russia: Silver Rose, sex workers’ righst organisations; UHRA, Ukraina and Assistance
Spain: Projecte dels NOMS-Hispanosida; Fundación Triángulo, LGBT rights' organisation
hetaira, sex workers’ rights organisation, Madrid; Comite de Apoyo a las Trabajadoras del Sexo (CATS)
Slovakia: Odysseus, Harm reduction organisation; Zuzana Pachová, Civic organization Helping Hand
Switzerland: ASPASIE, association for prostitutes and their rights, Geneva; Verein Lysistrada, health improvement and consutation for sexworkers in Olten; Prokore, swiss network for improvement of working conditions of sexworkers; FIZ, FIZ Advocacy and support for migrant women and victims of trafficking, Switzerland;MariaMagdalena, Conselling center for women in sexwork, prevention an health promotion in kanton St.Gallen; Association Boulevards, Geneva
Sweden: Rose Alliance, sex workers' rights organisation
Turkey: Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association, MoreL LGBT, LGBT rights organisation, Eskisehir
Ukraine: All-Ukrainian League "Legalife"
United Kingdom: English Collective of Prostitutes, for sex workers' rights and better wages and welfare for women; Sex Worker Open University, advocacy, support and events by and for sex workers, London, Leeds, Glasgow; International Union of Sex Workers, campaigning organisation for the human, civil and labour rights of those who work in the sex industry; X-TALK, sex workers-led cooperative offering english classes to migrant sex workers and interventions on themes of migration, labour and gender; Scot-PEP, promoting health, dignity and human rights for all involved in sex work, Scotland; UK Network of Sex Work Projects, UKNSWP (represents 60 front line service providers in the UK); GNGS - Glasgow Network for Gender and Sexuality (network of feminist and LGBT orgs in Glasgow)
Dear Members of the European Parliament,
We, the undersigned, would like to voice our serious concerns regarding the “Report on Prostitution and Sexual Exploitation and its Impact on Gender Equality”, drafted by Mary Honeyball, MEP for London, which will be voted upon during a plenary session on the 27th of February 2014 at the European Parliament. The report recommends the so-called “Swedish Model” – by which buying sexual services is criminalised but selling them remains legal.
The aim of this letter is not to reiterate our arguments against the Swedish Model. We believe sex workers’ organisations themselves will have already demonstrated the ineffectiveness and dangers of this model and we strongly recommend consulting and listening to them in regards to policies and all other matters that directly affect them.
We would like to draw your attention to the inadequacies of the Report, which is based largely on inaccurate and/or misrepresentative data. The sources cited are either studies which have been discredited, or are selected to relate to specific circumstances which do not reflect the experiences of many people working as sex workers. Nor does the Report consider the extensive evidence from peer-reviewed academic studies demonstrating the problems associated with the model proposed. We are concerned that this report is not of an acceptable standard on which to base a vote that would have such a serious, and potentially dangerous, impact on already marginalised populations, i.e. migrants and EU citizens earning or complementing their livelihoods by providing sexual services in exchange for payment.
We are aware that the matter you have been asked to vote upon is for many a complicated or uncomfortable one. However, we would like to ask you to look at the abundance of evidence that counters the claims made in Ms Honeyball’s report. We compiled a selection of research-based evidence countering the claims made by the sources mentioned by Ms Honeyball, which we include below. This evidence clearly indicates that Ms Honeyball’s report is seriously biased with regards to the selective citation of sources. Furthermore, it fails to consider the needs of male and transgender sex workers and the diversity amongst purchasers of sexual services. To base any policy on such a methodologically flawed document, particularly one which would have such a detrimental impact on the human rights and wellbeing of a large number of marginalised individuals, would be setting a dangerous precedent.
The report by Ms Honeyball fails to address the problems and harms that can surround sex work and instead produces biased, inaccurate and disproven data. We believe that policies should be based on sound evidence and thus hope that you will vote against the motion to criminalise sex workers’ clients. We would suggest instead that it is important to enter into a considered debate which takes into account the substantial amount of robust academic evidence on the subject, as well as that from sex workers themselves and civil society groups with longstanding experience of working with sex workers.
1. Dr Nicola Mai, Professor of Sociology and Migration Studies, London Metropolitan University, UK / Aix-Marseille Université, France
2. Dr Maggie O’Neill, Professor of Criminology at Durham University, UK
3. Dr Birgit Sauer, Professor of Political Science, Institute for Political Science, University of Vienna, Austria
4. Dr Christian Groes-Green, Assistant Professor, Institute for Culture and Identity, Roskilde University, Denmark
5. Dr Phil Hubbard, Professor of Urban Studies, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, and Director of Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Kent, UK
6. Dr Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Professor of Sexual Development, Diversity and Health, Department of Interdisciplinary Social Science/Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
7. Christiane Howe, Sociologist / Researcher, Institute of Ethnology, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany
8. Dr Rosie Campbell OBE, Visiting Research Fellow University of Leeds & Postgraduate Research Student University of Durham, UK
9. Dr Jay Levy, Researcher & Consultant, UK
10. Dr Katie Cruz, Lecturer, School of Law, Keele University, UK
11. Dr Susann Huschke, Visiting Fellow, Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice, Queen's University Belfast, UK
12. Dr Jenny Künkel, Researcher and Lecturer in Geography, University Frankfurt a.M., Germany
13. Dr Belinda Brooks-Gordon, CPsychol, Reader in Psychology and Social Policy, School of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, UK
14. Dr Giulia Garofalo, Marie-Curie Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Gender Studies, Lund University, Sweden
15. Dr Calogero Giametta, Sociologist, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Aix-Marseille Université, France
16. Dr Jane Scoular, Professor in Law at the University of Strathclyde, UK
17. Dr Mia Liinason, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Gender Studies, Lund University, Sweden
18. Dr Aneta Cekik, Assistant Professor of Political science, Institute for Sociological, Political and Juridical Research, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia
19. Dr Tomasz Sikora, Assistant Professor at the English Department of the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
20. Matthias Lehmann, PhD Candidate, Faculty of Law, Queens University Belfast, UK
21. Jane Pitcher, Postgraduate Research Student, Dept of Social Sciences, Loughborough University, UK
22. Stanimir Panayotov, PhD Student in Comparative Gender Studies, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
23. Dr Agata Dziuban, Faculty Member, Institute of Sociology, Jagiellonian University, Poland
24. Ania Ratecka, PhD Candidate, Institute of Sociology, Jagiellonian University, Poland
25. Dr Daniela Danna, Researcher, Faculty of Political Science, University of Milan, Italy
26. Dr Ronald Weitzer, Professor of Sociology at George Washington University, USA
27. Dr Heidi Hoefinger, Adjunct Professor, Department of Anthropology, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York, USA
28. Dr Tuppy Owens, Founder and Director of the Outsiders Trust and the TLC Trust, UK
29. Anna Głogowska-Balcerzak, PhD Candidate, Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Lodz, Poland
30. Dr Kaoru Aoyama, Associate Professor in Sociology, Graduate School of Intercultural Studies, Kobe University, Japan
31. Dr Carole S. Vance, Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, USA
32. Dr Sealing Cheng, Associate Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
33. Dr Kerwin Kaye, Assistant Professor of Sociology, State University of New York College at Old Westbury, USA
34. Dr Gillian Abel, Associate Professor of Public Health, Department of Population Health, University of Otago, New Zealand
35. Dr Jan Jordan, Associate Professor, Institute of Criminology / Te Pou Haratutanga, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand / Aotearoa
36. Dr Melissa Ditmore, Research consultant, Editor, Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work, USA
37. Dr Pardis Mahdavi, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, Pomona College, USA
38. Dr Svati P. Shah, Assistant Professor, Department of Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
39. Dr Elizabeth Pisani, Epidemiologist, Director, Ternyata Ltd. Public Health Consultancy, UK
40. Dr Smarajit Jana, Public Health Specialist, Former Technical Advisor at UNAIDS, Principal at the Sonagachi Research and Training Institute, Kolkata, India
41. Maria Tonini, PhD Candidate, Department of Gender Studies, Lund University, Sweden
42. Slavcho Dimitrov, PhD Candidate in Gender Studies and Philosophy, Euro-Balkan University, Skopje, Macedonia / MPhil Candidate in Multi-Disciplinary Gender Studies, University of Cambridge
43. Rafał Majka, PhD Candidate in Cultural Studies, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
44. Dr Anne Mulhall, Director, Centre for Gender, Culture and Identities, University College Dublin, Republic of Ireland
45. Dr Ole Martin Moen, Postdoctoral Fellow in Ethics, University of Oslo, Norway
46. Dr Hendrik Wagenaar, Department of Town and Regional Planning, University of Sheffield, UK
47. Dr Frances M. Shaver, Professor of Sociology, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
48. Dr May-Len Skilbrei, Professor, Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, University of Oslo, Norway
49. Dr Calum Bennachie, Gender Studies Expert, New Zealand Prostitutes Collective
50. Dr Yuko Higashi, Professor, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
51. Dr Graham Ellison, Reader in Criminology, School of Law, Queen's University Belfast, UK
52. Dr Cecilia Benoit, Professor of Sociology, University of Victoria, Canada
53. Dr Rebecca Pates, Professor of Political Science, University of Leipzig, Germany
66. Sine Plambech, Anthropologist, Researcher, Specialist in sex work related migration and human trafficking in Nigeria, Thailand and Europe, Danish Institute for International Studies, Denmark
67. Baerbel Heide Uhl, Political Scientist, International Consultant on Anti-Trafficking Politics, Berlin, Germany
68. Alexandre Teixeira, PhD Candidate, Centre of Psychology, University of Porto, Portugal
69. Filipa Alvim, Researcher, CRIA Portuguese Network Centre for Anthropological Research, Portugal
70. Nélson Ramalho, PhD Candidate in Social Work, Center for Research and Studies in Sociology, University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
71. Niina Vuolajärvi, PhD Candidate in Sociology, Specialist in sex work and migration, Rutgers University, USA / University of Eastern Finland
72. Dr Lorraine Nencel , Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
73. Dr Paul J. Maginn, Associate Professor, University of Western Australia, Co-Editor/Author of (Sub)Urban Sexscapes: Geographies and Regulation of the Sex Industry (Routledge, forthcoming), Australia
74. Anastacia Elle Ryan, PhD Candidate in Social Policy, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland / Visiting Doctoral Researcher, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
75. Dr Bob Jeffery, Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics, Faculty of Development and Society, Sheffield Hallam University, UK
86. Dr Kate Hardy, Lecturer in Work and Employment Relations, University of Leeds, UK
87. Dr Antke Engel, Director, Institute for Queer Theory, Berlin, Germany
88. Dr Jean-Michel Chaumont, Professer of Sociology, Hoover Chair of Economic and Social Ethics, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium
89. Synnøve Jahnsen, Researcher, Centre for Womens and Gender Research, University of Bergen, Norway
90. Dr Alexandre Jaunait, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Poitiers, Lecturer at Sciences-Po (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), Member of the High Council on Equality between Women and Men (Haut Conseil à l'Egalité entre les Femmes et les hommes), France
91. Dr Elizabeth Bernstein, Associate Professor of Women's Studies and Sociology, Columbia University
92. Dr Natalie Hammond, Lecturer in Sociology, University of Manchester, UK
93. Rebecca M. Jordan-Young, Tow Associate Professor of Women's, Gender, & Sexuality Studies, Barnard College, Columbia University, USA
94. Dr Stephanie Wahab, Associate Professor in the School of Social Work, Portland State University, Advisor at Best Practices Policy Project, USA
February 18th, 2014
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their international obligations under the international human rights treaties. This guide was produced by the International Service for Human Rights in Geneva, Switzerland. It explains what treaties are and how treaty bodies function. There is also a good glossary and list of e-resources.
Caught Between the Tiger and the Crocodile: The Campaign to Suppress Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation in Cambodia.
A simple guide written by Anna-Louise Crago for SWAN News to help sex workers and sex worker rights advocates understand the terminology, concepts and potentional impacts of 'end-demand' discussions.